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Archive for July, 2013

MANA: Let’s show beautiful side of cockfighting

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/3368192-philippines-petas-waterloo-in-drive-vs-cockfighting

 

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COCKFIGHTING IN BALI

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

By Fred B. Eiseman, Jr. 
Written Especially For Wasantara-Net 

Introduction

In 1981 the government of Indonesia, presumably motivated by high moral principles, decreed that all forms of gambling, including cockfighting, would henceforth be illegal. The results of this law have been about the same as anywhere else in the world where popular, relatively innocuous, and slightly immoral activities have been prohibited. The practice has merely moved away from prying eyes so that it is less obvious but still very real. So popular has cockfighting been in Bali for so many decades, that it is about as realistic to tell a Balinese man that he cannot participate in his favorite sport as it is to tell the sun not to rise.

Concealing cockfights from the law isn’t all that difficult. It is illegal to possess drugs, or firearms, but not chickens, and I have never heard of anyone being arrested for carrying a fighting cock down the street. So, the animals don’t have to be concealed – just what they do to each other. And there are more than enough of out-of-the-way places in Bali to insure that this tradition is perpetuated.

Every now and then the cops come and break up a cockfight. But, usually they have better things to do, and they know full well that, as soon as they go away, it will be business as usual. So, the law doesn’t take this matter very seriously. A local policeman who tries to keep his friends neighbors from cockfighting is not likely to be on the scene very long.

The main result of declaring cockfighting to be illegal is that the material aspects must be portable, in case of a sudden raid. That requires dispensing with some of the equipment that was traditional, such as round timers. It also means that villagers can’t use the big, roofed arenas called wantilan that were built years ago for cockfights. But, that is no serious hindrance. In my area there is a cockfight every day. It isn’t in the village, of course, but not very far away, either. nor is it advertised, but word gets around quickly, and all I have to do to find it is ask one of my several gambling neighbors who wouldn’t dream of being absent.

There, just off a rutted dirt road or single track trail, perhaps behind a living fence, one will find several dozen dusty motorbikes parked somewhat out of sight under some scrub trees. And not far away is where the action is.

Popularity

Why is cockfighting so popular? For one thing it is the slot machine or the bingo game of the third world. A fair percentage of the world’s population seems to be addicted to gambling. In the West, this may require some fairly sophisticated equipment, some odds-making center, complex communications equipment, and an assurance than an unseen and perhaps unknown person will pay up if you win. Not so with cockfighting. One doesn’t even need to own a cock. He can just show up and gamble to his heart’s content – limited only by his pocket book, since all bets are in cash.

For another thing, cockfighting is exciting. Unlike the monotonous whir of the slots, there is literally blood and guts here – like the Romans throwing the Christians to the lions. There are crowds that jostle and shout. There is lots of frenzied action. Even if you don’t bet, the scene may be worth the effort of getting there. Although this is almost exclusively a man’s sport, there are always ladies who show up to sell snacks to the spectators, and frequently there is a necessarily portable card or dice game on the ground nearby.

Pulling slot machine handles or filling out bingo cards all day long is a rather anti-social existence. Cockfighting is quite the opposite. It is a chance to see one’s friends, gossip, meet newcomers, and just pass the time of day. It is also the chance to make or lose a lot of money. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that the government banned it – the fact that those who bet and lost were among those who could least afford to do so. I have heard a hundred stories about locals who literally bet the farm on their favorite cocks and lost everything.

However, really big-time multi-million rupiah, professional cockfighting that used to be a daily event in the large public arenas in Denpasar and elsewhere in Bali has pretty well disappeared. The local, village cockfights may involve hundreds of thousands of rupiah, but seldom reach the point where a loss means a change in life style of the gamblers. Ordinary people
may bet a few thousand here and there, but this is not really big-time, serious, dog-eat-dog betting in most cases.

Religious Aspects

Cockfights have one other aspect, the religious, that is not well-appreciated by visitors to Bali. One important characteristic of the Balinese Hindu religion is the making of offerings. This is a complex subject that requires here a broad, sweeping generalization. One important function of offerings is as a means of communications between man and the gods. Higher deities are given offerings that emphasize the beautiful and tasteful side of life – flowers, fruits, leaves, and the like, usually placed in containers of young coconut leaf that are cut to various degrees of intricacy. These offerings are normally placed in elevated shrines or niches, befitting the belief that these deities have physical as well as spiritual elevation.

No less important is a class of spirits that are impish, lustful, impetuous, greedy, unpredictable, and capable of causing harm to those who interfere with them. These lower spirits that live on or near the ground have a variety of names and characteristics. In my village they are called butakala. It is wrong to think of them as being evil spirits. As with all spirits they are ambivalent; their behavior toward man is a function of how they are treated. They are just as capable of helping and protecting their human neighbors as they are of causing sickness, accidents, or the loss of a prized possession. If they are treated with respect, according to well known principles, they can be kept under control, and, indeed, they can be depended upon for protection.

Butakala are more animal-like than the higher spirits and require considerable amounts of food in the form of offerings. Ceremonies that are principally directed toward butakala always require an animal sacrifice, which may range from a small chick to a water buffalo, depending upon the size and importance of the occasion. One of the most important requirements of butakala is a blood sacrifice that must be poured upon the ground.

This is where cockfights come in. Whenever there is an important Balinese Hindu ceremony, there should be a blood sacrifice made to the local butakala to win their cooperation and support. Such a ceremony might range from a rite of passage, to the anniversary celebration of a temple or shrine, to the purification of an area that is known to be adversely affected by butakala. At such a time a cockfight is legal, and, in fact, a requirement. The local cockfighters come in from the cold, so to speak, and do their thing right out in public – perhaps even inside a public temple. The losing cock contributes his blood to the butakala, and all is well.

Theoretically only three rounds of such a religious cockfight are legally permitted. But, things being as they are, the normal procedure is to retire to the local wantilan and continue, sometimes all day long. The police won’t bother such an event since it is held under the guise of religion.

Craftsmen

Cockfighting supports a considerable handicraft industry. The most obvious necessities are the big, beehive-shaped cock baskets woven in a hexagonal pattern from bamboo strips. Every road is lined with rows of these cages, called guungan siap. They are shifted regularly to give the inhabitants thereof the proper balance of light and shade. The idea of placing them near a road is to get the cocks accustomed to noise, people, and activity, so that, when put into action in the arena, they will not be afraid of the spectators and noise and run away. Hanging on the outside of the cage is a half coconut shell from which the
cock is fed his special mixture of food and from which he is watered frequently. There are several villages in Bali in which the chief industry, next to farming, is making cock baskets.

These baskets are too big to be used for carrying a cock to the fight on a motorbike or on foot, so there is a brisk trade in smaller, purse-like, portable baskets with carrying string that can be slung over the shoulder, or with handles that allow them to be carried like a shopping bag.

There are craftsmen who specialize in making the sharp steel spurs, called taji, that are tied on the cock’s leg before the fight. In the old days broken automobile springs were the raw material, and the blades were straight and shaped like stilettos. Nowadays many smiths use pieces cut from hard, tough, industrial-size hacksaw blades. There are others whose specialty is sharpening the blades and removing the nicks from previous encounters.

Animal Rights

Many Westerners worry too much about the blood and guts aspect of cockfighting. That which provokes our elementary instincts will not provide much cultural insight. a more enlightened approach is to consider the Balinese attitude toward this activity. There is never any sense of guilt among the Balinese about that which to many outsiders might be considered inhumane treatment of animals. The Balinese are not known for their compassion for animals, except, perhaps, their cows and water buffalos. To them, the death of a chicken in the cockfight arena is in no way different from its demise under the knife in the kitchen before dinner.

Vocabulary

There are several words for the cockfight itself. The most common is tajen, derived from the steel spur, taji, that is tied on the cock’s leg. There is a very large special vocabulary that is closely involved with chickens, fighting cocks in general, and all of the activities that a cockfight involves. I have collected 59 words that are seldom used for anything other than cockfighting, plus eight more words that are involved with the odds. There are, for example, nineteen special words that are used to escribe the color and configuration of the feathers of a cock.

In addition to the vocabulary, there is an extensive lore in both the tangible and intangible factors that may determine the outcome of a cockfight. Certain colors of cocks should only fight certain others colors of cocks on certain days, at certain times of the day, depending, of course, upon the phase of the moon, and must be placed only in certain directions with respect to opponents. There are auspicious and inauspicious days for cockfighting that are determined by the calendar.

These matters are the subject of endless discussions when men gather to exercise their birds at the end of a long day when the shadows are starting to lean. The squatting cock owners stage impromptu, mock fights in which the birds are released to confront each other. But, no blades are used on their legs, and no injuries result. The men handle each other’s animals, massage them, ruffle their feather, pull their bills and combs, feel their muscles. This may go on for hours on end, and the scene is endlessly repeated in village after village.

Preliminaries

There are many preliminaries leading up to the actual fight itself. If the cockfight is not held in connection with a ceremony that fixes its beginnig, the event usually is staged in the late afternoon when the heat of the day has passed. The cocks are brought by their owners to the appointed gathering place in small, flexible carrying cages made of coconut or lontar palm leaf or bamboo. The food sellers bring their wares on their heads of by bicycle. The cages are lined up around the edge of the arena, and their handlers squat on their haunches behind them. It is a noisy, color affair, with the crowing of the cocks, the cries of the food vendors, and the raucous laughter and chatter of the crowd. Balinese are not sticklers about time, so there is usually a long wait.

It is important to realize that, in the larger cockfights, the men who actually handle the cocks before and during the fights are often not the owners. They are expert handlers who are hired by the owners to manage the animals. A skillful handler is of great importance to an owner. The winning cock is the one that last manages to stay on its feet, even if it is mortally wounded and drops dead seconds later. A good handler has a large bag of tricks that he uses to revive a seemingly lifeless cock and instill enough spirit in him to return to the fray. He plucks, massages, and ruffles the feathers. He has salves and medicines. He may breathe on the cock’s mouth, or even put the cock’s whole head inside his own mouth – anything to enable the wounded bird to get in just one more blow. Because one good stab is often all it takes to turn an apparent winner into a future feather
duster – the fate of losing cocks. Sometimes this situation is reversed. It may be the handler who seeks out the owner and pays him to allow use of his cock so that the handler can bet and win.

Before the preliminaries begin an offering is usually placed in the fighting area. Then the handlers or owners who want to match up their cocks come out into the arena to seek opponents. Usually a miscellaneous crowd of bystanders collects too. After much wandering around and talking, quite time-consuming, a potential opponent is usually found. The two handlers involved squat down, facing each other, and, still firmly holding their birds, allow them to glare at each other and, perhaps, get in a peck or two. Ruffs flare, and the animals get very excited. Then the handlers exchange birds by simultaneously handing the bird with the right hand and receiving the other with the left. Muscles are felt and strength is tested.

Sooner or later a match and the amount of the bet are agreed upon. If a cock is being handled by someone other than the owner, this handler must ask the owner’s approval, and he may veto the match; but this is rare nowadays. After three or four pairings of opponents has been made, considered to be one set of matches, preparations are made for the fights.

The Blade

 
The next step is to affix the blade, the taji, to the cock’s leg. The person who does this is usually a specialist, not the owner or handler. A taji is a small steel dagger, 11 to 15 centimeters long from tip to tip. The blade is a thin diamond in cross section and terminates in an unsharpened, roundish handle that constitutes about one-third of the length of the whole taji, where the blade is attached to the bird’s leg. There are all kinds of special stories and lore about taji. Menstruating women may not look upon them or touch them. Some say that they may only be sharpened at the dark of the moon. They must be forged with charcoal from a tree that has been struck by lightning, and some say that they may only be made when there is lightning going on outside. They must not be touched by a member of a family in which there has been a recent death. And so on, depending upon whom you listen to and where you are. A good taji may cost up to Rp 10,000. There are usually several tying specialists around, to be hired for a small fee to affix the blades. Or, it sometimes happens that the handler has his own taji. The taji are carried in a little wooden or leather wallet containing usually 6 to 12 taji of different sizes. The appropriate size for the cock at hand is selected.

The blade is attached, normally to the left leg, by wrapping twine around the leg and handle of the taji. This is an extremely important part of the preparation. If a blade is improperly fastened, the cock will be at a great disadvantage. There are numerous ways of attaching the blade by tying it in various positions relative to the foot of the cock and at various angles.

Each of these has a special name. If the bird is small, the taji is attached to the outside of the leg; if large on the inside. The angle of attachment is also critical. Thus, a good tying specialist is very important. Sometimes, when one cock clearly outweighs the other, the heavier one is handicapped by modifying the attachment of the blade. But, this is never done unless both owners agree. While the blade is being attached, the cock is held by the assistant. Holding tight is important. The blade is razor sharp and could critically injure the wrapper or a spectator if uncontrolled. Casual spectators, even the betters themselves, are often wounded seriously by cocks that seek to escape.

Betting

When all pairs of cocks for the first set of matches are ready, the arena clears out, and the first match begins. The handlers of the first two cocks meet, with their birds, in the center of the arena and give to one of the referees the cash that represents the central bet. This is the bet that was agreed upon when the match was made a few minutes earlier. And it is always even money – no odds. The money is provided by the owners, who usually get contributions from family, friends, and backers in the crowd. The bet may be considerable. Even at the small matches, a central bet of Rp 100,000 is not unusual. And at the really big cockfights as much as Rp 1 million is often et.

There are always several referees, in the arena. But, the chief judge is the man in charge. He must be a man of impeccable honesty and reputation, and he must have no relationship to or interest in any of the owners, handlers, or cocks. His word is undisputed law in the arena. If he is tainted in any way, honest people will not fight their cocks under him.

Before gambling was outlawed in Indonesia, the system of judges, referees, and time keepers was fairly elaborate, often with a permanent arena, tables, benches, and all the paraphernalia required. Nowadays, except for matches that take place in a religious context, cockfights must be conducted with an eye out for a raid by the police. This makes it impossible to use anything that cannot be quickly packed up and carried hastily away to safety. And so there are now usually no special facilities. Any open area will do. There is usually no special timing equipment. There is not a retinue of judges and referees. Things are kept simple because of the possible necessity of a hasty retreat.

The referee now announces the amount of the central bet. This is of interest to all, because it indicates the confidence that the owners and handlers have in their animals, and thus will influence the amounts of the side bets. Now the side betting begins – that is, the bets between members of the audience or between them and the cock owners or handlers. To the uninitiated, this phase of the proceedings is utter chaos. Betters yell at each other, wave money around, stand up and gesticulate wildly, and make unfathomable signals with fingers and hands. But, to the aficionado, this is all a very interesting intricate, and carefully structured series of events. And the side betting tells perhaps more about Balinese character than any other aspect of cockfighting. It is as if one were attending a horse race meeting at a medium large track and there were no ticket windows or pari-mutuel machines.

The central bet is always even money. The side bets are never even money. The most fascinating thing is the way in which the odds are set. First the favorite and the underdog must be established. The first shouts of the betting are generally made  by the experienced, more or less professional betters. These are the men whom one sees at almost every cockfight. They follow the fights around and have no regular jobs except gambling. These men quickly assess the two cocks, using their considerable knowledge and experience, and decide which is the favorite. And then they start shouting its color. The shout is a staccato repetition of the color name. For example, bieng means red and white. So, if a red and white cock is being pushed as favorite, one hears: “bieng, bieng, bieng, bieng, bieng, bieng….” in rapid fire. There are a great many ways in which color is classified. Some examples are: putih, white; barak, red; buik, speckled green and black; selem, black; brumbun, black, red, and white, and so on. These colors generally refer to the color of the cock’s collar or ruff and not to the overall body color. If two cocks have the same color, some other differing aspect will be called out – for example the size of the tail, the size of the body, or even the side or compass direction of the arena that the cock is located in. The latter is done either by shouting the direction name or waving with the hand, palm toward the cock that the better is backing.

Other, less experienced betters listen carefully to the first calls and generally follow their lead. But, strict attention is required, because the favorite may change, depending upon the opinions of the betters and the overall sentiment of the crowd. If more people yell one color name than the other, and do so more vigorously, the former will replace the latter as the temporary favorite.

10. Odds 

After the first color shouts, made to establish the favorite, those who wish to bet on the underdog start yelling the odds that they want. Thus, the color shouters are the backers of the favorite and the odds yellers are backing the underdog. The object is for two of these opposing betters to find each other in a crowd when they are separated by a distance as great as the width of the arena, packed so tightly together that even standing up is difficult, and walking around is impossible. This is done, however, with great efficiency and ease. There are names for the various odds, as follows:

10 / 9 = dapang
5 / 4 = gasal
4 / 3 = cok( soft c, pronounced chock)
3 / 2 = tludo
5 / 3 = tlewin
2 / 1 = apit
5 / 2 = nglimin

And if a better shouts balu, or sapih after the odds, he wants to win even if the fight ends in a draw – a rare event. The first four on the list, the lowest odds, are by far the most common. The backer of the underdog tries to get the longest odds possible, and the favorite backer tries to get the shortest. The underdog backers usually start at about 3/2 and are forced by lack of takers to work down to lower odds. The favorite backers look for shouters of low odds, but, if there are none, have to settle for higher odds. Both types of backers usually indicate the amount they want to bet by holding up fingers.

Curiously enough, the monetary unit of betting is not the Indonesian rupiah, the standard of currency for the entire country, but, rather, the ringgit, a unit of money used many years ago when Indonesia was a Dutch colony, and long since abandoned. No prices anywhere in Bali are quoted in ringgit except bets on cockfights, and there nothing but ringgit are used. Since there is no ringgit currency, bets are necessarily paid off in rupiah, but they are always made in ringgit. It is rather like the guinea in British
transactions involving very expensive objects with snob appeal. The number of fingers held up indicates the number of thousands of ringgits that are being wagered, unless the better indicates by his shouts that it should be interpreted as hundreds of ringgit. One ringgit is 2 1/2 rupiah, regardless of foreign exchange. So, two fingers means 2,000 ringgit or Rp 5,000, which is an average size side bet at a medium size cockfight.

Favorite and underdog backers scan the crowd quickly, looking for an acceptor. It is usually the favorite backers who stand and wave toward their choice, while the underdog backers wave rupiah notes, not to indicate the amount they wish to bet, but just to attract attention. When eye contact is made with a likely looking prospect, there ensues a complex and rapid series of signals that make sure each understands the nature of the bet. Palm waving indicates the favorite. Finger extension indicates the bet size. Lip movements enforce the signals, because the din makes oral communication impossible at a distance. If the bet is agreed upon, the two men signal the fact by touching their heads or pulling at the fronts of their shirts. If there is isagreement, they break eye contact and look elsewhere. If an odds shouter cannot get a bet, he lowers his odds one notch on the scale and keeps trying, getting closer to, but never attaining, even money. The  handlers often bet too, spurring the crowd to back their cocks by holding them aloft and walking around the arena. During this phase of proceedings, confusion and noise are maximum. The sounds are deafening, as the odds criers yell out: “cok, cok, cok, cok”, or: “gasal, gasal, gasal, gasal.” The favorite backers shout their colors in a frenzied patter. There is much waving and shouting and gesturing to attract attention.

While the betting is going on the handlers carry the cocks to the center of the arena and incite them to fury by pushing them at each other, plucking their combs, and bouncing them on the ground. Betting frenzy reaches utter pandemonium as fight time approaches and those so far unsuccessful at placing bets try frantically to do so at the last minute.

The Fight

When the referee feels that betting has gone far enough, he indicates that the match should begin. The crowd suddenly becomes quiet after a few last-minute bets are quickly placed. The referee and the judges, any, squat down in the corners of the arena, and the handlers release their charges from opposite sides of the arena, at a distance. Anything can happen.

Usually the birds fluff their ruffs, extend their necks, and, after a preliminary glare, have at each other in a fury of feathers and flying feet, so quickly that the eye can hardly follow the action. The crowd groans and shouts, almost as one man, following the action with united body English. Rather soon one cock lands a solid stab with its taji. At once its handler signals the head referee to stop the first round. This is done to prevent the two animals from making further contact, since the wounded cock could easily stab the one that stabbed him, when the latter closes in to peck him to death. The time keeper nlw starts his count.

In the old days the time keeper used a unique kind of clock called ceng, a half coconut shell with a hole in the bottom, placed, large side up, in a bucket of water. Its sinking time, obviously rather variable from place to place, but usually about 10 seconds, is also called one ceng. The time keeper’s gong was sounded once after each ceng. Three ceng are allowed between rounds. Nowadays the referee simply counts off the seconds out loud so all can hear.

Meanwhile the handler of the wounded cock works frantically over his bird, trying all of his tricks to revive it and give it spirit. And he is often quite successful, the injured animal, seemingly indifferent to its wound, sails right into the other one. At the end of the third ceng, both cocks have to be put on the ground immediately. Failure to do so forfeits the match. Round two starts. If the wounded cock cannot stand, and if the other one can stand for one ceng, the match is over. If the two birds start fighting, the match proceeds as in round one, until one or the other is struck. The fighting is again stopped, a three- ceng period is allowed for the revival of the injured animal, and the fight continues. If both cocks are still going strong after five rounds, the match is declared a draw. This seldom occurs. The time keeper used to keep track of rounds on a special counter, a wooden frame with a horizontal wire. Five wooden strips were suspended vertically from the wire, sort of like the beads of an abacus. The timer pushed one counter aside after each round.

It frequently happens that the wounded cock loses its appetite for fighting. Or, in some cases, a cock may not have any desire to fight at all right from the beginning, and tries to escape from the arena. The crowd scatters quickly because  wildly escaping cock with a lethal dagger strapped to its leg could cause great harm. One or another of the spectators grabs it by the neck and returns it to the ring. The handler has 9 ceng to get his animal back into action or he forfeits the fight.

Another rest is signaled if the cocks do not start fighting, but, rather, merely walk around the arena without trying to escape. During this time the handlers of the reluctant cocks try to urge them on. In the next round, if they are unsuccessful, and the cocks do not clash, the winner is determined by use of an ordinary bamboo cock cage without a bottom. It is the tie breaker – the finisher. There must always be a winner. The two reluctant cocks are placed on the ground under the cage, and the referee brings it down quickly and leaves it down for one ceng. The head referee looks carefully from close up. Victory goes simply to the aggressor. It not need kill or even wound the other cock, although it frequently does. kill the other. It merely has to display aggression. But, if the two cocks, now face to face with no retreat, start to fight again, the cage is removed and the fight continues as before. The second round, if there is one, and succeeding rounds, is always started with the two cocks facing each other close together in the center of the arena, where a small square is marked, rather from the sides of the arena, as when the fight starts.

As soon as the winner is declared the bets must be paid up. Side bets are paid in cash – at once. No IOUs. In large, crowded arenas those who are wedged into the crowd wad up their bills and throw them at the persons who won their money. If the money misses or lands in the arena, someone always forwards it to the rightful owner. There is remarkably little bickering and dispute over who owes what to whom.

The owner of the winning cock gets the entire central bet, which has been kept by the referee during the fight. From this he must pay the handlers, the blade affixer, the percentage to the house, and all those who contributed to his share of the central bet. He also gets the body of the losing cock. He always gives the chopped off taji leg to the tying specialist who unwinds the string, puts the blade back in stock, and looks for further work.

The match itself has lasted only a few minutes. At once the second match of the set begins. The cocks have already had their taji attached. Their handlers carry them into the arena, the central bet is quickly made, and the side betting begins just as before. There is no connection at all between the separate matches. One set consists of four or five matches. When they are over, the handlers and hangers-on come out into the arena and start looking for opponents, just as they did before the first set. This goes on all afternoon until dark, thec crowd never thinning until it is all over. Since many temple anniversary festivals last for three days, there are often cockfights on three successive days too.

Cockfights are regularly held at ceremonies that occur in family house compounds when it has been determined that the grounds are unclean and need some sort of purification so as to make the place livable. At such times a very large offering, called a caru, is made inside an enclosure of coconut leaf mats, and the butakala asked to help the people who own the property, rather than interfere with daily activities. This is inevitably preceded by a cockfight, as the word gets around fast, and villagers from all overcome and stage an impromptu tajen right inside the family house compound. There is a small, important shrine just outside the front door of my house. On the day of its anniversary, every 210 days, as many as 50 men gather for the obligatory tajen. The family with whom I live are not gamblers and don’t even own a single fighting cock. But, they consider it imperative to participate in the fight, and so they buy a cock from a friend, give it to a neighbor to handle in the first fight, and place small bets on it, just so that they can be a part of the activities of the anniversary of their shrine.

Gambling on cocks has been responsible for the dissipation of a good many Balinese fortunes, large and small. Many a rajah of old lost his palace, wives, and treasure by being cock crazy, as the Balinese call an habitual better. I have heard from many of my Balinese friends how their fathers or grandfathers were reduced to poverty by this addicting habit.

Cockfights & Culture

It is difficult to penetrate the shell of many cultures. The adjective inscrutable has been overworked in the case of Asia, but it is apt. Fear of misunderstanding and ridicule, desire to maintain privacy, and unwillingness to risk profanation of the sacred have required some groups to erect formidable barriers that prevent perforation by the casual observer. But, every now and then one finds an opening, a cultural crack through which a glimpse of the interior is possible.

Such cracks often occur in connection with public events that are so popular and are participated in with such vigor and enthusiasm that, for the time being, the protective reserve and dignity and politeness shown to foreigners are forgotten, and the real values and character of the people hang out, so to speak, for everyone to see.

Fighting cocks, cockfighting, and wagering on the fights have been popular obsessions with the Balinese for generations. The tourist who can worm his way into the sweating, jostling, noisy, gesticulating crowd of men and join them, standing around an open arena, watching the proceedings, might wonder if he has stepped into a different country. Are these the graceful, deferential, dignified people whom he has seen in his hotel? Are these the same individuals who carry the offerings to the temples and pray with such lovely and heart-felt fervor? There is no better place than the cockfight to observe Balinese values and behavior. But, the casual observer is likely to focus his attention on the brief cockfight itself. This is understandable. The boisterous crowd itself is a sight to behold. As it suddenly quieted down and the action began, the fast and furious flurries of engagement are punctuated with the ohhhh’s, and ahhhh’s of the audience. The impressions of color and primeval combat were blurs of color. and suddenly it is over, and the tourist leaves.

But, if that is the only impression, the visitor misses most of the significance. The preliminaries and the post script, the daily treatment of the fighting cocks, the arcane lore of the sport, and especially the intricacies of the betting are as integral a part of the story as the fight itself. And, unfortunately, they are aspects that most people miss because they occur in such a seemingly chaotic fashion as to make them unintelligible to anyone but the person who would take the time and trouble to investigate.

Nowadays it is not easy for the casual tourist even to find a cockfight. Years ago they were common, daily events. Visitors to Bali with sufficient interest, flexibility, and time will find it very interesting to inquire from local people when and where cockfights are going to occur so that they can look for themselves through this window of Balinese culture.

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/essays.html

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/baliwasantara.html    With Photos

 

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This Article is for Educational and historical purposes

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COCKFIGHTING STORIES OF THE NORTHWEST

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/tacoma2.html

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Cockfighting in Killarney (1830’s)

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

Cock-Fighting by Ray Marshall

“Captain Harry Oliver, a retired Indian army officer, a great sportsman of his time (the 1830’s) kept a coop of game cocks for fighting. Local and inter-parish preliminaries were held all over Kerry, and these drew crowds of onlookers. Once, a battle royal took place , between representative fighters from Killarney and Castleisland. Killarney boasted that it had the champion game-cock of Kerry, and Killarneyites would stick a finger in your eye if you as much as hinted that there was a better bird to be found in all Munster.

Mr. Daniel Reidy, called Donal Duv, because of his dark complexion, had bred a bird, Dancing Master, that Islanders believed would make short work of Mulroon, the champion bird of Killarney.

The Dancing Master was a cross between a game hen and a cock pheasant, and “that was the raison,” Hughson Reidy, grand-nephew of Donal Duv, used to say that “the devil was in him, in his eyes and in his spurs.”

Well, the great day came at last. Hundreds of “sports” came from Killarney and Castleisland, in carriages, in sidecars, donkey-cars, and per shank’s pony [walking]. After a few preliminary bouts the battle of the day was staged.

The Killarney men never dreamt that they would meet such a tropical bird! The birds faced and eyed each other critically. Mulroon, thinking of his many victories, waded in on the Castleislander with great vim and dash, and many a glancing blow; but the Dancer stepped lightly and gracefully aside. The Killarney men rocked with laughter. “He’s yallow!” they shouted, “He’s a coward. He won’t stand up to it.”

But the Dancer was only biding his time, only watching his chance, as he politely bowed his compliments to Mulroon. He kept a steady, beady, malignant eye on a patch of feathers where Mulroon’s neck joined his head. That eye was deadly, like the skinned eye of a trapped eagle; it boded a bad time for the Killarney champion, who was futilely flapping his wings, striking the air, gurgling great hatreds at his opponent. Not a gug out of Donal’s pet while dancing a stately minuet and hopping and sparring round for a blow. then at last it came like forked lightening – swift and sudden death for Mulroon. With one fierce dive and blow the Dancing Master’s spur was through Mulroon’s brain! Castleislanders knew all the time that the end would come suddenly, for at every previous fight the Dancer had killed his man with a single blow.

Killarney was dumbfounded – horrified, and entirely shocked. There lay their champion as dead as a door nail on the green grass! It was incredible; the hero of a hundred fights killed with one blow from an unknown Castleisland cock! This was too much for the patience of the men from the Reeks. Then the humans, excited on either side by victory and defeat, commenced a big battle with the bare knuckles, following the death of the great Munster cock – o’ – the – walk.

We must draw a veil over the rest of this East Kerry shindy at the Pike; but we must add that it was a very disorderly mob of disgruntled Killarney men, some of them with black eyes, that sneaked into their home town that evening by by-ways and side-ways, and back-yards, with their pride utterly routed. But the Castleisland men came through the Main Street that evening, roaring themselves hoarse, with Donal Duv on their shoulders and the villainous head of the Dancing Master peeping out from under Donal’s jacket, while gorsoons and men cheered as if they had won a battle that freed all Ireland for ever.” (T.M. Donovan, A Popular History of East Kerry”, pp. 47-51)

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/killarny.html

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlker/cfight.html

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Cock Fighting-The Traditional Game of Tet by “The Voice of Viet Nam”

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

COCK FIGHTING

++ A good fighting cock must have the small head of a peacock, the body of a cormorant, deep eyes, long black upper legs, short lower legs, wings neatly wrapped like a shell, a long and a strong neck;

A number of traditional and famous places throughout Vietnam produce fighting cocks. They are Van Cu and Nghi Tam in Hanoi in the north, Binh Dinh, Quang Ngai, and Nha Trang on the central coast and Ba Ria, Duc Hoa in the south. Fighting cocks from Cao Lanh (Dong Thap province) in the Mekong River Delta are famous throughout the country, as a popular saying goes:

“No fighting cocks are as good as those from Cao Lanh
No girls are as beautiful as those from Nha Mon in Phu Tho province”

A good fighting cock is carefully selected through the mother hen’s bloodlines and appearance. Le Tuan Phong, who specialises in raising fighting cocks from Hanoi’s Nghi Tam district, explains, “To select a good fighting cock you must consider its mother hen’s stock and appearance because it is said that, “a dog likes its father and a chick, its mother.” It is very difficult to select from a flock of chickens a chick that can fight well. To choose a fighting cock, one must first look at the colour of its feathers. Purple-feathered cocks are usually strong and brave with good fighting abilities. But one must be careful since some of them may have been crossbred between a pure-breed hen, raised for producing cocks and a normal rooster raised for meat.”

Black coloured cocks possess moderate skills. Grey fighting cocks with black legs or white-feathered and white-legged cocks are quick, but poor at withstanding their opponents’ strikes. The species MauMo (apricot coloured) produce beautiful chickens. But they tend to run away when subjected to fierce attack. Owl-feathered fighting cocks are strong and persistent and possess good fighting skills. Phong explains more about some old fighting cock traditions, “Each fighting cock species, bantam, Chinese chicken, half breed chicken, and others are identified by its characteristics. Some old books also classify fighting cocks into different types: literary, military, half-literary and half-military. On this basis, people name the cocks according to their special features: Than Ke (magical chicken), Linh Ke (divine chicken) and Hung Ke (powerful chicken).”

Cock owners carefully train their cocks before the fight. The cock should be able to stand in the right posture and deliver the right kicks and pecks. It is said that a fighting cock, even if large, will fail if it lacks certain necessary strokes. Moreover, a good fighting cock must have the small head of a peacock, the body of a cormorant, deep eyes, long black upper legs, short lower legs, wings neatly wrapped like a shell, a long and a strong neck.

In short, a fighting cock must look brawny and powerful. Fighting cocks are usually divided into two types: feathery and sinewy. The former is small but tireless and nimble, while the latter is strong and sturdy. However, it is not possible to judge a fighting cock just by looking at its appearance. Some cocks may look frail but can prove unbeatable. Cock fighting remains a game, which attracts many people in Vietnam. Le Tuan Anh, a Hanoian, often goes to see the Nghi Tam fights recalls, “I have a passion for cock fighting because it is a traditional and original game. I think that it is an attractive and interesting game of chance through which we can see paradoxes and excitement of the game. For me, cock fighting is an indispensable part in traditional Vietnamese culture.”

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/vietculture.html

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COCKFIGHTING IN KAIFENG-AN ANCIENT-STYLED GAME

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 13, 2013

Cockfighting is indeed a unique game of China, which has a history longer than any other animal fight in the world. From Song Dynasty up to the present day, cockfighting has been popular in Kaifeng.

In Kaifeng, the cockfighting enthusiasts are called “cockfighting players”. They take cockfighting as a pleasure. Most of the enthusiasts love wushu and drinking. They are loyal to their friends and strict to discipline. They have their own tradition, i.e. they consider principles more important than favoritism . If you really love his gamecock, through a friend’s introduction, he can present it to you freely, but you must strictly observe the rules: you may raise it, but you cannot transfer it to others, nor can you breed it with hens. If you are unable t o continue to raise it for one reason or another, you might as well kill it and have its meat, but you must give its head and paws back to its original owner to show your good faith. If you are not a cockfighting enthusiast, the owner will not give his gamecock to you even if you are his close relative or friend. It is said that the enthusiast would rather offer you one thousand dollars than give you a gamecock.

It is no exaggeration to say that the enthusiasts love their cocks more than their children. They always show their deep concern for the cocks. The feed is repeatedly washed before the cock eats it. They spread some fine coal cinder in the cage every day, for fear the cock’s feet might be frozen. In winter, which is the cockfighting season, they will cover the cock cage with a cloth hood or with their clothes, or even put the cock into their bosom so as to keep the cock in good health and vigorous fighting will. The gamecocks of Kaifeng are characterized by their pure breeding. The breeding selection is very strict. The enthusiast must know his cock’s five older generations. No close breeding is allowed. The purpose in raising the cock is for fighting. The enthusiast has systematic methods in raising and training it.

The training of a gamecock is very interesting. At dawn every morning, the trainer will “drive” the cock. The cock runs in the front and the trainer runs after it. They run faster and faster and the training time is longer and longer. twenty days later, this training will last one hour or so. After the training, he will let the cock have a rest and drink some water. At about 10 o’clock in the morning, the cock will be let free from the cage “for a walk” on an open ground so as to relax its tension of spirit. The cock will be fed at about 12 and then it will have a rest in the cage. At 3 or 4 o’clock the cock will have another walk and then it will be trained for another hour. Before the evening, the cock will be given an additional meal. This method of training can make the cock strong and quick for fighting.

The 2nd day of the 1st lunar month is the day for cockfighting competition. Besides, the competition can also be held on the 2nd day of the 2nd lunar month, the 3rd day of the 3rd lunar month or the 4th day of the 4th lunar month. When the date is fixed, the cockfighting hollow will be chosen, which is a place lower than the surrounding ground. From the fall of Qing Dynasty to the period of the Republic of China, the square outside the east gate of the inner city of Kaifeng had been used as the cockfighting hollow. But now, the competition is often held in the LongtingPark, or the IronPagodaPark or the GrandXiangguoTemple. The cockfighting competition is very bustling, with a large number of people around the fighting hollow, watching. The man in charge of the cockfighting hollow is called “cock head” who is both the judge and the go-between of the two parties of the competition. Before the fighting begins, the both owners of the cocks will examine each other’s cock. Only when the two cocks are similar with each other in size, weight and age, can they be made to fight. With the order of the “cock head”, the two owners carry their cocks into the competition ground. When the head shouts “Ready!”, the two owners squat inside the circle, letting their cocks facing each other. After the head gives order “Let the cocks free!” , the two owners will withdraw from the circle and the two cocks begin to fight. One game will last 15 minutes. At the both ends of the hollow there is a pail of water which is used to cool down the temperature of the cocks after one or two games. At the request of either or both parties, the head will give the order “Hold the cock!”. At the order each owner will carry up his cock, weep the blood off the cock’s head, and then soak the breast and the parts under the wings with water so as to refresh it for further fighting.

There are some established rules for the watchers to observe in watching cockfighting, i.e. no matter how fierce the fight may be and how brave the cocks are, they cannot cheer or applaud, for fear they might shock the cocks. Another rule is that the watchers can only praise the cocks. If one says a cock is weak, he will be driven away from the competition hollow.

Now cockfighting has become an interesting activity, which is useful to the society.

http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/doujie.html

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Cockfighting – A DIE- HARD Tradition

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 11, 2013

By: Prak Chanthul..Photos by: Sem Vannjohn ( February, 2003 Volume 3 No.2 )

Games and play made ordinary days more enjoyable for Khmers living in the countryside during ancient times. During festivals, holidays, or after a long rice harvest, people in the countryside especially would unpack their games to release the stress of daily living. Before its great political instability throughout the last several decades, Cambodia had been known as a civilized country, a cultural center full of tradition and entertainment.

Cock fighting, still popular in rural communities today, has been a favorite pastime for centuries. Sculpture of men and their angry cocks are carved into the stone of the Bayon temple, bearing witness to the timelessness of this tradition. Men in particular love the flying feathers, and women who turn their eyes away from a fowl game are said to commit a sin against the cocks.

The elephant terrace at Angkor Thom also has been decorated with carvings of elephant fighting, indicating that the crowing cock was not alone. Duels between beasts like buffalos, elephants and pigs have fallen from popularity, dying with the men that incited them.

But cockfighting has proven popular throughout the passage of time. No written documentation clearly describes the origins or this tradition, but it is believed that its roots stem from the Angkorian period. Contemporary historians have refrained from publicizing the sport, for fear of creating a culture of gambling.

“We do not publish books about this tradition because it might encourage people to get involved more and bet a lot of money,” said Ourng Von, Director of the National Patrimony Department. “The police used to catch people betting a lot of money on cock fights during the 1970s.”

As is often the case with animal extortion, a debate has erupted over the tradition’s morality. Some like 20 year-old Say Sambath, a Kampong Cham resident, feel cockfighting is cruel and contradicts Buddhist teachings.

“I don’t like it because humans are committing sins against cocks,” he said. “Our lord Buddha does not lecture us to harm others, including animals.”
Since cockfighting is a pastime of the ages, Sambath’s statement boldly suggests that Cambodia’s history is ridded with sinners. He quickly expressed that cockfighting is a minor offense, and there are far worse sinners that should be punished with severity. “So, I can say cockfighting is not a big problem, because our ancestors also did this in the past,” he concluded.

Ourng Von defended the game, calling it a stress reliever. “It is a good tradition from our ancestors that was used to release bad feelings, but now things are changing,” he said. Presently, some gamblers take advantage of cockfighting’s betting opportunities, laying down more money than they can often afford. This has prompted some observers to criticize the depraved nature of the sport. Cockfighting was not always centered on gambling, however. In ancient times, participants used the tradition as a kind of warm exchange, bestowing winners with a small bottle of rice wine. After the duel, opponents would cheerfully share the wine as a sign of camaraderie. This sportsmanship has faded with time, and presently more people turn to the sport not for friendship but for money. Still, others simply love the prestige and respect that accompanies a solid victory.

For love or money, this tradition is practiced in other Asian countries like China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. Cockfighting specialists have identified the Vietnamese cock as a stronger breed than its Khmer counterpart. Within out borders, cocks from Battambang province have proved to be the toughest fighters in the game. These feisty fowl have been so powerful in the past that their reputation precedes them, preventing some would-be opponents from entering the arena. Cock specialists have found that the most powerful bird is produced from a crossbreed between Battambang and Vietnamese or Thai cocks.

A cock’s appearance does not always testify to its strength. The prowess of a bird is judged by its style of fighting. Some consider cocks with a thin face surface and strong wings to be hard-hitters. Game cocks are fed on special diets, often including anabolic steroids to improve muscle mass and aggression. To prepare the cocks for a fight, the birds need to be cleaned daily with water and are fed intermittently with beef or pork. Some enthusiasts believe that soaking the two legs in water for a few minutes just before a fight would help strengthen the tired limbs during a fight.

Once the cock is prepared for battle, it enters a circular arena created on the clean ground and surrounded by high borders. As the fight ensues, a defeated cock is one that fearfully runs away from its opponent. Fleeing is a sign of weakness, looked down upon by cock specialists. Once a bird has shown weakness, it will not be used again. A cock that is defeated by being knocked unconsciousness may be used to fight again, however. There are five rounds in a competition; each period is the length of time it takes to burn a stick of incense.

While the actual fighting rarely lasts five rounds, the tradition will last for years to come. Cockfighting’s earning potential, coupled with the debate surrounding the sport’s religious sanctity, draws spectators from all walks of life. The game may be surrounded by controversy, but it is irrefutable that this historic tradition can energize even the dullest parties

http://www.leisurecambodia.com/news/detail.php?id=41

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This Article is for Educational and historical purposes

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Let’s put up one hell of a fight

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 11, 2013

Let’s put up one hell of a fight.

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Needed Articles about the Gamecock Heritage

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 9, 2013

If anyone would like to write an article about the Gamecock Heritage, its History and Culture in you Country please feel free to send it to me and I would love to post it on my website so everyone could read it and any photos of Historical Artifacts, Carvings, Artwork, Etc that is about the Gamecock and its Heritage

 

Gamecocks Unlimited

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American Games – It is not a bad sport

Posted by gamecocksunlimited on July 9, 2013

American Games – It is not a bad sport.

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